Huot, Sylvia Jean. Madness in Medieval French Literature: Identities Found and Lost. Oxford University Press, 2003.
症例誌をどう読むのか。色々と方法論を探していたのですが、この数年で読んだものの中で一番重要な方法論です。基本は三分論です。 医学の読み方があり、聖人伝の読み方があり、中世騎士物語の読み方の三つがある。 医学は身体に関して狂気を説明する疾病観。聖人伝はそのキリスト教性を強調する宗教的な狂気の解釈。騎士物語は、すべてを超絶した男の騎士の特異性を強調する解釈。 これらと似たような、違いを持っている視点が、しばしばからみあって一つの症例誌に出てくる。私が読んでいる症例誌だと、医者の視点、看護人の視点、患者の視点、そして家族の視点の四つですね。
It has become a commonplace to note that madness and sanity
madness is often configured as a crisis of boundaries and borderlines, as stated by R.D. Laing. "Our culture, while allowing
The views of madness developed in medieval medical writings, drawing on the traditions of antiquity, portray madness as an illness, resulting from bodily corruption and imbalance. 10
The medical conditions associated with madness involve the breakdown of boundaries, both internal - those marking divisions within the body - and external: the crucial dividing line between self and other. 11 madwoman gazes out at the world and sees reflected her innermost preoccupations. Yet this mirroring of the self is not a reassuring image of wholeness but rather its horrific inversion: what is reflected is not integrity but a multitude of vermin; not purity but defilement. 12
Arnaldus. "And from this, it necessarily follows that because of this intense desire for the thin, its form is retained in a fantastically powerful manner and a memory of the thing is thereby constantly present." 13
The toxicity of the madperson's own body.
If medical tradition discusses madness in terms of bodily corruption, delusion, and autotoxicity, however, there is none the less a fundamental ambivalence surrounding madness as we look beyond medicine to philosophical, theological, and literary traditions. 15
There is another side to the perception of madness in the Middle Ages as in our own time, a
The identification of madness or folly with aspects of the Christian faith is as old as the New Testament itself.
But if the medieval Christian must remain vigilant against the danger of mistaking a saint for a madman, the opposite danger is equally present, that of mistaking a charlatan or outright lunatic for a saint. 20
[For a male saint, "he did not act due to
Ponce's madness, as described by Guillaume, reflects both a crisis of identity and a deeply troubled relationship to the rituals and trappings of religious devotion.
From hagiography, with its crucial but fraught distinction between the madperson and the saint, I turn now to courtly romance. We have seen that the madwoman is a potent figure in the context of devotional writings. Diagnosed by a male confessor, cured by a male saint, the madwoman readily signifies the excesses / of the will and the frailties of the flesh that must be disciplined and controlled by the male power structure of the Church. Madness has a rather different import, however, in courtly texts, where it is nearly always associated with men. Women in the romance world are certainly subject to trauma, but instead of going mad they generally succumb to somatic illness, attempt suicide, pine away, and even die of grief. Male heroes struck by madness, however, are numerous -- Amadas,
The chivalric here -- knight errant, warrior, over, ruler -- is, like the saint, a figure who transcends the normal limits of bodily or psychological endurance, and who incarnates an ideal that others may aspire to but are unlikely to achieve. In his sublime excellence, his beauty, courtesy, nobility, and invincible prowess, the hero is untouchable: he stands along, unconquered, unequalled. And in his aspect as a madman, darkly parodying his special status, he becomes untouchable in a different sense: unreachable, incapable of communication or exchange; wholly apart, a figure of mockery, revilement, and exclusion. 29