今日のOED英単語は adust. 意味としては過度に熱された、陽光で焦げたなど。もとはラテン語で中世フランス語を経て英語に。医学の体液論を経たらしく、体液が加熱されて焦げたという意味が第一の意味。どの体液でもいいが、胆汁に関して言及されることが一番多い。もともと熱く乾いている体液だからなのか、そのあたりはよく分からない。例文を読んでいると、錬金術や医化学派の影響が感じられるような気がする。もちろん、ガレノス派でもパラケルスス派でも過度に熱するという過程は中枢であるから、ガレニズムだけでも出てくる概念だけれども、機械的な過程が感じられる。Milton, Paradise Lost, xii, 635. With torrid heat, and vapour as the Lybian Air adust. などに、医化学的な考えが漂っていませんか（笑）
"adust, adj.1" - Word of the Day from the OED
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Your word for today is: adust, adj.1
[‘ Med. Designating any of the humours of the body when considered to be abnormally concentrated and dark in colour, and associated with a pathological state of hotness and dryness of the body. Freq. as postmodifier. Now hist.’]
Pronunciation: Brit. /əˈdʌst/, U.S. /əˈdəst/
Forms: ME–16 aduste, ME– adust.
Origin:Of multiple origins. Partly a borrowing from French. Partly a borrowing from Latin. Etymons: French aduste; Latin adūstus, adūrere.
Etymology: < Middle French aduste (French aduste; compare Anglo-Norman adusté (13th cent. or earlier in medical contexts)) (of bodily humours) overheated (12th cent. in Old French), (of a place) hot, burning (1380), burnt, scorched (1480), affected with, or having a temperament determined by, adust humours (1506) and its etymon classical Latin adūstus burnt, scorched, charred, scorched by the sun, (of the complexion) dusky, swarthy, (of colour) dark, in post-classical Latin also (of bodily humours) overheated (from 12th cent. in British sources; frequently in medical contexts), use as adjective of past participle of adūrere adure v. Compare Old Occitan adust (c1220), Spanish adusto (a1400), Italian adusto (end of the 13th cent.), all earliest in sense 1a (now hist. in this sense). Compare later adusted adj.
a. Med. Designating any of the humours of the body when considered to be abnormally concentrated and dark in colour, and associated with a pathological state of hotness and dryness of the body. Freq. as postmodifier. Now hist.
Of the four humours, choler appears to have been the most often described as adust. Adust humours, esp. adust melancholy, were believed to be the source of mental and emotional symptoms as well as physical illness.
a1400 tr. Lanfranc Sci. Cirurgie(Ashm.) (1894–1988) 203 (MED), iij maner of colre adust..is whanne his blood is adust, id est brent.
a1475 Bk. Quinte Essence 22 (MED), Þe feuere agu comounly is causid of a uyolent reed coler adust, and of blood adust, and of blak coler adust..alle þe humouris ben adust.
1542 A. Borde Compend. Regyment Helth xi. sig. F.ivv, Burnt breade and hard crusts,..doth ingendre color, aduste, and melancoly humours.
1576 G. Baker tr. C. Gesner Newe Jewell of Health ii. f. 63, Cares of the mynde..of adust flewme engendred.
1578 H. Lyte tr. R. Dodoens Niewe Herball 377 All diseases springing of melancholique, adust, and salt humours.
1646 Sir T. Browne Pseudodoxia Epidemica 335 In Fevers and hot distempers from choler adust is caused a blacknesse in our tongues, teeth and excretions.
1678 tr. L. Lessius in tr. L. Lessius et al. Temperate Man ix. 101 Grief thus set on work, by a certain kind of Sympathy straitens the heart, and hinders the Dilatation thereof, whereby the melancholick humor becomes adust, and more malignant.
1716 J. Arbuthnot To Mayor & Aldermen City of London: Humble Petition 2 The Sun-Beams taken inwardly, render the Humours too Hot and Adust, occasion great Sweatings, and dry up the Rectual Moisture.
1755 C. Perry Mech. Acct. Hysteric Passion 96 The immediate cause is always one and the same, and consists in hot, acrid, adust humours, irritating the medullary substance of the brain.
1839 R. Dunglison Med. Lexicon(ed. 2) 15/1 The blood and fluids were formerly said to be adust, when there was much heat in the constitution and but little serum in the blood.
1954 Sewanee Rev. 62 163 It emerges that two distinctions are to be made: a physical distinction between natural melancholy and adust melancholy, and a literary distinction between the Galenic and Aristotelian traditions.
1973 Harvard Theol. Rev. 66 299 An imbalance of the humors caused black bile to become ‘adust’, the fumes of which rose to the brain, disordering the intellect and causing insanity.
2009 A. Ellis Old Age, Masculinity, & Early Mod. Drama ii. 61 The melancholy that resulted was not earthy (cold and dry, provoking sluggishness), but adust (hot and dry, provoking passion).
†b. Originally: affected with, or having a temperament determined by, adust humours (see sense 1a). In later use: having a melancholy character or appearance; gloomy; sallow. Obs.
c1460 Lydgate Minor Poems(1934) ii. 737 (MED), The coleryk man..Drye and adust and a gret wastour.
1556 T. Hill tr. B. Cocles Brief Epitomye Phisiognomie sig. D.iiii, That face whiche denteth somwhat in, and is more leane then grosse, declareth that man to be iniuriouse, enuiouse, deceatfull,..vayne, very simple, and of a dull vnderstandyng, and somtyme a murtherer, especiallye if he be adust wanne or yelowesh in colour as Cocles knewe the lyke.
1605 A. Munday tr. G. Affinati Dumbe Diuine Speaker 228 Whereon it happeneth, that cholericke men (being adust and fierie by nature) when they are in heate, they cannot pronounce perfectly.
1659 E. Gayton Art Longevity xiv. 30 If by complexion men adust (that's sad) Or splenatick, do like this beveridge bad.
1728 Pope Dunciad ii. 21 No meagre, muse-rid mope, adust and thin.
1794 T. Holcroft Adventures Hugh Trevor I. iii. 18 My aunt was..of an adust complection, atrabilarious in look and temper, thirty-four, and two years older than Mr. Elford.
1820 W. Irving Sketch Bk. II. 91 That plodding spirit with which men of adust temperament follow up any tract of study.
1880 Athenæum 27 Mar. 414/2 The tall, somewhat adust and worn woman standing by a table.
a. Burnt, scorched; desiccated by exposure to strong heat; parched. Also fig. Now rare.
?a1425 tr. Guy de Chauliac Grande Chirurgie(N.Y. Acad. Med.) f. 83 (MED), R[ecipe]..carabel aduste, And þat is rede erþe as smal as grauel.
?a1425 tr. Guy de Chauliac Grande Chirurgie(N.Y. Acad. Med.) f. 93b/a, Alum combust & a drie cucurbita adust [L. adusta; ?c1425 Paris ybrente].
c1487 J. Skelton tr. Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheca Historica i. 58 Nilus..renneth thurgh contrees that be aduste & hugely endryed by the feruente hete of the sonne.
1533 in tr. Erasmus Enchiridion Militis Christiani sig. av, Erasmus is the onely furbyssher Scouryng the harneys, cankred and aduste whiche neglygence had so sore fret with ruste.
1551 J. Bale Actes Eng. Votaryes: 2nd Pt. f. xliv, Lyke an adust conscyenced hypocryte.
1637 T. Nabbes Microcosmus ii. sig. C3, Provoke me no more: I am adust with rage.
1667 Milton Paradise Lost xii. 635 With torrid heat, And vapour as the Lybian Air adust.
1684 tr. T. Bonet Guide Pract. Physician vi. 179 The Vulgar now and then cure putrid Fevers by taking of adust Wine.
1709 M. Prior Poems Several Occasions(ed. 2) 168 Arcadia However streamy now, adust and dry Deny'd the Goddess Water.
1756 S. Hales in Philos. Trans. 1755(Royal Soc.) 49 327 Its more disagreeable adust taste.
1837 T. De Quincey Revolt of Tartars in Blackwood's Edinb. Mag. July 105/2 The camels..These arid and adust creatures.
1857 Fraser's Mag. 56 69 African islands..whose desolate and adust beauty sets the imagination all on fire.
1919 Scribner's Mag. Mar. 271 Geysers, leaping to the sun, In lands adust, untrod by men.
†b. Of or designating a dark brown colour, as if scorched; (of a person) dark-skinned, tanned. Obs.
?1586 M. Hanmer Baptizing of Turke sig. B4, These people inhabiting Mauritania in Affricke, are..for their adust, and blacke colour called μαύροι and μαυρούσιοι Moores.
1596 T. Nashe Haue with you to Saffron-Walden sig. Q4v, Of an adust swarth chollericke dye.
1601 P. Holland tr. Pliny Hist. World I. ii. lviii. 28 Which stone is shewed at this day..carrying a burnt and adust colour.
1678 London Gaz. mcccxxv/4 One Mary, a Lecestershire woman..complection somewhat adust..Run away from [etc.].
c1760 T. Smollett Ode to Independence 67 Arabia's scorching sands he crossed..Conductor of her Tribes adust.
1845 R. Ford Hand-bk. Travellers in Spain I. ii. 202 Here everything is adust and tawny, from man to his wife, his horse, his ox, or his ass.
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